Basic Questions of Computer Networking that every software engineers should know.

What is Client/Server Networking?
The term client/server refers to a model utilizing networked client and server computers and application software. Web, FTP, email, DNS and many other database applications are client-server systems.

What is Peer-to-Peer Networking?
Peer to peer networks share responsibility for processing data among all of the connected devices. Peer-to-peer networking (also known simply as peer networking) differs from client-server networking in several respects.

What Is a Network Name?
A network name is a string that computing devices use to identify a specific computer network. Network names are typically different from names of individual computers or the addresses computers use to identify each other.

How is Network Performance Measured?
The performance or "speed" of a computer network is normally measured in units of bits per second (bps). This quantity can represent either an actual data rate or a theoretical limit to available network bandwidth. The related units of Kbps, Mbps, Gbps represent increasingly larger multiples of bps.

What Is the WWW?
The term "WWW" refers to the open development phase of the Internet in the 1990s. The WWW comprises a global network of Web sites accessible on the Internet.

What Is a URL?
URLs (Uniform Resource Locators) identify by name Web servers and individual Web pages stored on those servers, anywhere on the Internet.

What Is a URI?
A URI (Uniform Resource Identifier) names both local and remote Internet resources similar to URLs.

What is TCP/IP?
TCP/IP is an extremely popular network protocol that enables communication between most of today's computers. Did you know that TCP/IP is over 30 years old?

What is an Ethernet MAC address?
MAC = Media Access Control. Each and every Ethernet device interface to the network media (e.g., network adapter, port on a hub) has a unique MAC address, which is "burned" into the hardware when it is manufactured. MAC addresses uniquely identify each node in a network at the Media Access Control layer, the lowest network layer, the one that directly interfaces with the media, such as the actual wires in a twisted-pair Ethernet. In modern Ethernets the MAC address consists of six bytes which are usually displayed in hexadecimal; e.g.,

What is DHCP?

A. DHCP = Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol is an Internet protocol. It resides in a DHCP server and clients that use the server. Simply put, a DHCP server supplies Internet Protocol (IP) addresses when requested by client computers on a TCP/IP network that have TCP/IP configured to obtain their IP addresses automatically. A DHCP server is configured to use a range of IP addresses known as its scope. It automatically and dynamically manages the allocation of IP addresses within its scope. IP addresses are assigned to clients under a lease arrangement that can be set for to expire after a given time

What are private IP addresses?
The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) has reserved the following three blocks of the IP address space for private internets (local networks): - - -

Also, IP addresses in the range of - are reserved for Automatic Private IP Addressing.

These IP's should not be used on the Internet.

I usually use,, etc. and a subnet mask of when assigning static IP addresses to computers on a small Local Area Networks (LANs). If a DHCP server is also on the LAN it's scope (range of IP addresses that it can assign to computers on the LAN set to obtain their IP addresses automatically) should be adjusted so it does not interfere with locally assigned static IP addresses.

What is RAID ?
A method for providing fault tolerance by using multiple hard disk drives.
RAID stands for Redundant Array of Independent(or Inexpensive) Disk Drives that employ two or more drives in combination for fault tolerance and Performance.

What is the difference between transmission and communication ?

Transmission is a physical movement of information and concern issues like bit polarity, synchronisation, clock etc.
Communication means the meaning full exchange of information between two communication media.

What is ICMP ?

ICMP is Internet Control Message Protocol, a network layer protocol of the TCP/IP suite used by hosts and gateways to send notification of datagram problems back to the sender. It uses the echo test / reply to test whether a destination is reachable and responding. It also handles both control and error messages.

DIfference between bit rate and baud rate ?

Bit rate is the number of bits transmitted during one second whereas baud rate refers to the number of signal units per second that are required to represent those bits.
baud rate = bit rate / N
where N is no-of-bits represented by each signal shift.

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